A neurodevelopmental disorder is defined as an impairment of the growth and development of the central nervous system. It effects the child’s brain function in controlling emotion, learning ability and memory as well as social interaction. Today, one in six children is diagnosed with some forms of development and behaviour disorder. It is advised for parent to have their child diagnosed early, if they found that their child is withdrawing from social world, failing to learn the basic communication skill or struggle with emotional regulation, etc.. otherwise, a child may be at risk of becoming serious lifelong disability.
II. Most common types of brain development disorder
1. Autism disorder
Autism is one most common form of brain development disorder and one in 166 child is diagnosed with some forms of autism. It is defined as medical condition in which a child has some of the following impairments
b) Social and communication skills
c) Limited interest
d) Repetitive behaviour
2. Asperger syndrome
Children with Asperger syndrome has no problem with speech development, but have very poor social and communication skills. they may talk a lot, but fail to focus and keep up with the subject. they also have a very narrow interest as they may talk about only one single subject for months or years. Some children with Asperger syndrome may also engage in repetitive behaviour such as flagging hand.
3. Pervasive Development disorder
Children who have developed some or mild forms of autism are considered to have pervasive development disorder. Although some symptoms or important signs of autism are missing, they are likely to diagnoses with autism or Asperger syndrome later in their life.
4. Rett Syndrome
Rett syndrome effects mostly girl, is defined as a condition of which children lose social and communication skills as well as purposely use of their hand. It may also accompany with symptoms of hand repetitive and seizures.
5. Childhood integrative disorder
Children with childhood integrative disorder may gradually lose their language, social communication and self help skills between the period of 2 -4 years old.
6. Sensory integration dysfunction
Sensory integration dysfunction is a condition of which a child fails to react synapse xt to the information collected from the scene, caused by abnormal brain function in processing information. Typically, most children with sensory integration syndrome may be under sensitive in reaction to pain or noise or over sensitive in reaction to certain environments such as noise, bright light or often both.
7. Auditory processing disorder
Auditory processing disorder is defined as damaging of the neurological structures and pathways of sound perception, therefore children with this disorder are able to hear sounds but have trouble to interpret what they hear.
8. Expressive language disorder
This is defined as a condition of which the children have a limited vocabulary and difficulty in recalling words or expressing themselves by using complex sentences.
9. Speech apraxia
It is caused by the broken down of the inter-reaction between the brain in controlling the speech muscles during speech. Children with speech appraxia know what they want to say, but can not speak through their voice and their words are difficult to understand.
10. Attention deficit hyperactivity
ADHD is defined as psychological condition of which a child has a poor attention skill, impulsive behavior and hyper-activity. The symptoms may appear to be innocent but annoying nuisances to other children. It effects between 3-5% of children globally and most of them are diagnosed later in their childhood life.